The sperm and egg meet in the fallopian tube and fertilization occurs then the fertilized egg (embryo) moves back into the womb. If the tubes are blocked or absent then this cannot occur. This is a cause of infertility in 20%.

The most common cause of tubal damage is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea following unprotected intercourse. Other causes of tubal damage include surgery appendectomy, tubal ectopic, sterilization and ovarian surgery or infection/inflammation in the abdomen such as peritonitis. Rarely tubal surgery can be used to repair damaged tubes.

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Damaged fallopian tube with adhesions (scar tissue) secondary to infection or surgery

In females with PCD the cilia in the tube may not move effectively and there may be tubal damage secondary to previous ectopic pregnancies. If the tubes are not functioning normally then IVF is recommended.